In 2017, Congress enacted legislation opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas development. The Bureau of Land Management immediately began the process to review the environmental impacts of oil and gas development in the area, setting a political timeline that seeks to complete leasing sales in the region before the next presidential election. NARF represents the Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government, Venetie Village Council, and Artic Village Council, three federally recognized Gwich’in tribes working tirelessly to protect their way of life and oppose oil and gas development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. NARF is working with its tribal and technical experts who specialize in the Arctic environment to represent its tribal clients during the environmental and preservation review processes. This involvement means that the Tribes have been at the decision-making table from the outset, influencing the scope and direction of the processes, rather than being just spectators.
For more than 40 years, the oil and gas industry has tried to gain access to the resources under the the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. A pristine landscape, we the citizens have fought to keep the Refuge wild. But now, the Trump Administration and Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski are making progress towards delivering the refuge to their friends in the oil and gas industry.
With the help of Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski, the oil and gas industry inserted a provision into the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 allowing the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to be opened to oil and gas development. Oil and gas asked, Senator Murkowski provided. And now, the current administration is bending over backwards to get oil and gas leases in-hand before the next presidential election. Processes that usually take years—to ensure that facts are known and everyone affected by the proposed action has a chance to be heard—are being pushed through in mere months.
The Arctic Refuge is a breathtaking, untouched landscape—one of very few remaining in the world. The Refuge is part of the ancestral range of the Gwitch’in people and home to 37 species of land mammals, 8 marine mammals, 42 fish species, and more than 200 migratory bird species. It is also the calving grounds for the Porcupine Caribou herd. The Gwich’in people enjoy a close and lasting relationship with the caribou, which are a main source of subsistence as well as a spiritual and cultural treasure for local communities. The Gwich’in have maintained their culture, identity, and integrity as traditional indigenous inhabitants of the area with sacred relationships to the land and caribou. They are a people who have yet to be corrupted and colonized, and their culture relies upon and honors the caribou and the ancestral homelands that have provided for them for thousands of years. For them, the Refuge’s Coastal Plain is Iizhik Gwats’an Gwandaii Goodlit, “The Sacred Place Where Life Begins.”
June 21, 2019
The NARF Legal Review is published semi-annually and provides updates on NARF’s cases and information on other timely Indian law topics. The Winter/Spring 2019 edition describes efforts to protect the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
February 26, 2019
In its ongoing efforts to fast track oil and gas development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge before the next presidential election, the Bureau of Land Management released a hastily prepared Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) at the end of December. The draft EIS is far from adequate and does not comply with legal requirements.
About the Draft
In less than a year, the Trump Administration slapped together an Environmental Impact Statement, based on pre-existing data and research from other regions in Alaska. The draft EIS brushes aside the subsistence and cultural resources of the local Tribes. Under the law, an EIS is supposed to consider all potential impacts on the environment and local communities, but this document falls well-short of that requirement. For example, it does not include an adequate analysis of the effects on the Porcupine Caribou Herd, which calves on the Refuge’s coastal plain, or the Gwich’in Tribes who depend on them; the analysis fails to include Native knowledge from the people most intimately familiar with the region; and, as it compares outcomes for alternative scenarios, it does not even consider the option of NOT opening the Coastal Plain to leasing.
The draft goes so far as to boldly declare that oil and gas development in the caribou calving grounds will have no impact on the Tribe’s subsistence hunting practices. Even as it acknowledged that oil and gas development could change migration patterns and lower calving rates, it’s narrow and incomplete analysis incorrectly concluded that Gwich’in subsistence use would not be affected.
Let the BLM know that it must follow the law and provide a thorough and accurate analysis of the effects of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas exploration. Make a difference and submit your comments today.
How to Comment
Review the Draft EIS on the BLM website.
Points to Consider as You Write Your Comment
- The analysis is based on incomplete and outdated scientific information about the effects of energy development on the Coastal Plain. The agency did not take steps to obtain more information or even identify the missing information—both of which are required by law.
- A thorough analysis requires participation of all affected parties. BLM has not consulted with all of the Gwich’in tribes (as required by law). The BLM must allow all community members to have a voice in this process.
- The agency cannot gauge the effects on the Porcupine Caribou Herd without complete and accurate information. This includes addressing gaps in current Western scientific data and incorporating the traditional knowledge of the peoples who have practiced subsistence living in the area since time immemorial.
- The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge was established in part to conserve wildlife and protect subsistence uses. If the refuge is opened to oil and gas development, how will those goals be met?
- The Refuge also fulfills US-Canada treaty obligations related to the conservation of the Porcupine Caribou herd. The agency must detail how exactly it will fulfill those treaty obligations if it allows oil and gas development in the region.
- The draft statement fails to include the potential effects of seismic activity of related oil and gas exploration. Seismic exploration is part of the oil and gas development process and should be included in the full analysis.
Last week, eight tribal representatives testified in DC about the importance of protecting the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Thank you to everyone who helped make sure that Native voices were heard.
February 7, 2019
In December, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) released a slap-dash Environmental Impact Statement knowingly based on inaccurate, outdated, and incomplete information. Now, with the federal government briefly open, they have scheduled all of the required public hearings (seven in Alaska and one in DC) to happen between February 5 and February 13!
And, these “public hearings” will be highly unusual. They will consist of a presentation by the BLM, followed by a court reporter meeting privately with attendees to record their comments. This uncommon procedure diminishes the force of testimony and deflates public discourse. It is obvious that the regulators don’t want to hear from the people, they want this process done as quickly and quietly as possible. This is clearly a tactic to suppress concerned voices, including those of the Gwich’in people.
We must hold the government accountable. Don’t let the BLM take away people’s voices. Don’t let one senator, on behalf of one industry, undo the will of the people!
December 20, 2018
The Bureau of Land Management today released the draft Environmental Impact Statement for oil and gas development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This release represents the latest move by the Trump Administration to rapidly develop public lands significant to the region’s federally recognized Neets’ąįį Gwich’in Tribes.
In less than a year, the Trump Administration slapped together an Environmental Impact Statement, based on pre-existing data and research from other regions in Alaska, that brushes aside the subsistence and cultural resources of the Tribes. The draft goes so far as to boldly declare that oil and gas development in the caribou calving grounds will have no impact at all on the Tribe’s subsistence hunting practices. The Tribes, with attorneys from the Native American Rights Fund, are working tirelessly to halt any attempt to develop the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge’s Coastal Plain.
“Today’s release was done with no prior notification to our Tribal Councils, who have met with the BLM for months on a government-to-government basis,” said Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government Executive Director Tonya Garnett. “What’s even more disrespectful is to release this just before our villages are gathering together to celebrate the holidays. The total lack of regard to our tribal governments on an issue of such importance really demonstrates how BLM leadership views their trust responsibility to our Tribes. Our people and the caribou are bound together, and their fate is the same as ours. We will never stop in the defense of our way of life.”