Native American Citizenship and Borders

Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. and National Archives and Records Administration. Copy of the Act as passed by Congress June 2, 1924.

Native American Citizenship 1924. Nebraska Department of Education and the Nebraska State Historical Society. A series of illustrated essays discussing the history of American Indian citizenship and U.S. policy concerning Native Americans.

Handbook on the Indigenous Peoples’ Border Crossing Rights Between The US and Mexico. Researched and written by Alianza Indígena Sin Fronteras / Indigenous Alliance Without Borders & Christina Leza (Associate Professor of Anthropology and Indigenous Studies, Colorado College).

Selected Legal Scholarship

American Indian Law Alliance Staff (2016). Border crossing rights between the United States and Canada for aboriginal people . American Indian Law Alliance. Provided by Pine Tree Legal Assistance, Maine.

Fadel, Raymond J. (2017). An Indian by another name: Cross-Border affirmative action. New York University Law Review, 92(11), 1108-1145.

Heidepriem, Peter (2015). The Tohono O'odham Nation and the United States-Mexico border. American Indian Law Journal, 4, 107-129.

Hoxie, Frederick E. (2007). What was Taney thinking? American Indian citizenship in the era of Dred Scott. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 82(1), 329-359.

Kowalski, Joseph (2017). Imaginary lines, real consequences: The effect of the militarization of the United States-Mexico border on Indigenous peoples. American Indian Law Journal, 5(2), 645-660.

Lewerenz, Dan (2010). Historical context and the survival of the Jay Treaty free passage right : a response to Marcia Yablon-Zug. Arizona Journal of International & Comparative Law, 27(1), 193-223.

Marquez, Deron (2017). Citizenship, disenrollment & trauma. California Western Law Review, 53(2), 182-212.

NCC Staff (2017). On this day, all Indians made United States Citizens. National Constitution Center. Consitution Daily, Retrieved from

Nickles, Bryan (2001). Native American free passage rights under the 1794 Jay Treaty : survival under United States statutory law and Canadian common law. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 24(2), 313-339.

Oeser, Michael D. (2015). Avoiding extinction, preserving culture: Sustainable, sovereignty-centered tribal citizenship requirements. North Dakota Law Review, 9(1), 3-35.

Smith, Caitlin C.M. (2012). The Jay Treaty free passage right in theory and practice. American Indian Law Journal, 1(1), 161-180.

Starks, Rachel Rose, Jen McCormack, and Stephen Cornell (2011). Native Nations and the U.S. Borders: Challenges to Indigenous Culture, Citizenship, and Security. Udall Center Publications, The University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ. 

Tsosie, Rebecca (2016). The politics of inclusion: Indigenous peoples and U.S. citizenship. UCLA Law Review, 63, 1694-1745.

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