Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma
Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Tribal Code
Chapter Ten. Limitation of Actions
Section 1001. Limitations Applicable
Civil actions can only be commenced within the periods prescribed in this Chapter after the cause of action shall have accrued; but where, in special cases, a different limitation is prescribed by statute, the action shall be governed by such limitation. There shall be no statute of limitations applicable against civil actions brought by the Tribe on their own behalf except to the extent that a statute of limitation is expressly stated to be applicable to the Tribe by this Code or some Tribal statute.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1001, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1001
Section 1002. Limitation of Real Actions
Actions for the recovery of real property or for the determination of any adverse right or interest therein, can only be brought within the periods hereinafter prescribed, after the claim shall have accrued, and at no other time thereafter.
(a) An action for the recovery of non-trust interest in real property sold on execution, or for the recovery of real estate partitioned by judgment in kind, or sold, or conveyed pursuant to partition proceedings, or other judicial sale, or an action for the recovery of real estate distributed under decree of The Court, in administration or probate proceedings, when brought by or on behalf of the execution debtor or former owner, or his or their heirs, or any person claiming under him or them by title acquired after the date of the judgment or by any person claiming to be an heir or devisee of the decedent in whose estate such decree was rendered, or claiming under, as successor in interest, any such heir or devisee, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale or proceeding, or within five (5) years after the date of the entry of the final judgment of partition in kind where no sale is had in the partition proceedings; or within five (5) years after the recording of the decree of distribution rendered by the Court in an administration or probate proceeding; provided, however, that where any such action pertains to real estate distributed under decree of the Court in administration or probate proceedings and would at the passage of this Title be barred by the terms hereof, such action may be brought within five (5) years after the passage of this Title.
(b) An action for the recovery of real property sold by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon an order or judgment of a Court directing such sale, brought by the heirs or devisees of the deceased person, or the ward of his guardian, or any person claiming under any or either of them, by the title acquired after the date of judgment or order, within five (5) years after the date of recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale.
(c) An action for the recovery of real property sold for taxes, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the tax deed.
(d) An action for the recovery of real property not hereinbefore provided for, within twenty (20) years.
(e) An action for the forcible entry and detention or forcible detention only of real property, within three (3) years.
(f) Paragraphs a, b, and c shall be fully operative regardless of whether the deed or judgment or the precedent action or proceeding upon which such deed or judgment is based is void or voidable in whole or in part, for any reason, jurisdictional or otherwise; provided that this paragraph shall not be applied so as to bar causes of action which have heretofore accrued, until the expiration of five (5) years from and after its effective date.
(g) Nothing in this section should be construed to impose any statute of limitation upon the enforcement of a right to possession of real property held by the United States in trust for any Indian or Indian Tribe under any law of the United States or restricted against alienation by any law of the United States in conformity to the laws of the United States relating to such real property.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1002, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1002
Section 1003. Persons Under Disability--In Real Property Actions
Any person entitled to bring an action for the recovery of real property, who may be under any legal disability when the cause of action accrues, may bring his action within two years after the disability is removed.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1003, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1003
Section 1004. Limitation of Other Actions
Civil actions other than for the recovery of real property can only be brought within the following periods, after the cause of action shall have accrued, and not afterwards:
(a) Within seven (7) years: An action upon any contract, agreement or promise in writing.
(b) Within five (5) years: An action upon a contract express or implied not in writing; an action upon a liability created by statute including a forfeiture or penalty except where the statute imposes a different limitation and an action on a foreign judgment.
(c) Within three (3) years: An action for trespass upon real property; an action for taking, detaining, or injuring personal property, including actions for the specific recovery of personal property; an action for injury to the rights of another, not arising on contract except as otherwise provided in building construction tort claims, and not hereinafter enumerated; an action for relief on the ground of fraud--the cause of action in such case shall not be deemed to have accrued until the discovery of the fraud.
(d) Within one (1) year: An action for libel, slander, assault, battery, malicious prosecution, or false imprisonment.
(e) An action upon the official bond or undertaking of an executor, administrator, guardian, Tribal Police officer, or any other officer, or upon the bond or undertaking given in attachment, injunction, arrest or in any case whatever required by the statute, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued.
(f) An action for relief, not hereinbefore provided for, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1004, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1004
Section 1005. Persons Under Disability in Actions Other Than Real Property Action
If a person entitled to bring an action other than for the recovery of real property be, at the time the cause of action accrued, under any legal disability, every such person shall be entitled to bring such action within one year after such disability shall be removed.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1005, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1005
Section 1006. Absence or Flight of Defendant
When a cause of action accrues against a person and that person is out of the Tribal jurisdiction or has concealed himself, the period limited for the commencement of the action shall not begin to run until he comes into the Tribal jurisdiction, or while he is concealed. If, after a cause of action accrues against a person and that person leaves the Tribal jurisdiction or conceals himself, the time of his absence or concealment shall not be computed as any part of the period within which the action must be brought. Provided, however, that if any statute which extends the exercise of personal jurisdiction of the Court over a person or corporation based upon service outside the Tribal jurisdiction, state, or nation, or based upon service by publication permits the Court of this Tribe to acquire personal jurisdiction over the person, the period of his absence or concealment shall be computed as part of the period within which the action must be brought.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1006, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1006
Section 1007. Limitation of New Action After Failure
If any action is commenced within due time, and a judgment thereon for the plaintiff is reversed, or if the plaintiff fail in such action otherwise than upon the merits, the plaintiff, or, if he should die, and the cause of action survive, his representatives may commence a new action within two years after the reversal or failure although the time limit for commencing the action shall have expired before the new action is filed. An appeal of any judgment or order against the plaintiff other than on the merits as above stated shall toll the two year period during the pendency of the appeal.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1007, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1007
Section 1008. Extension of Limitation
In any case founded on contract, when any part of the principal or interest shall have been paid, or an acknowledgment of an existing liability, debt or claim, or any promise to pay the same shall have been made, an action may be brought in such case within the period prescribed for the same, after such payment, acknowledgment or promise; but such acknowledgment or promise must be in writing, signed by the party to be charged thereby.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1008, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1008
Section 1009. Statutory Bar Absolute
When a right of action is barred by the provisions of any applicable statute, it shall be unavailable either as a cause of action or ground of defense, except as otherwise provided with reference to a counterclaim, setoff, or cross-claim.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1009, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1009
Section 1010. Law Governing Foreign Claims
The period of limitation applicable to a claim accruing outside of the Tribal jurisdiction shall be that prescribed either by the law of the place where the claim accrued or by the law of this Tribe whichever last bars the claim.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1010, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1010
Section 1011. Limitation of Building Construction Tort Claims
No action in tort to recover damages:
(a) For any deficiency in the design, planning, supervision or observation of construction or construction of an improvement to real property,
(b) For injury to property, real or personal, arising out of any such deficiency, or
(c) For injury to the person or for wrongful death arising out of any such deficiency,
shall be brought against any person owning, leasing, or in possession of such an improvement or performing or furnishing the design, planning, supervision or observation of construction or construction of such an improvement more than ten (10) years after substantial completion of such an improvement.
Absentee Shawnee Civil Procedure Section 1011, AST CIV PRO Code Section 1011