Cal.Fam.Code § 170


California Codes

Family Code

Division 1. Preliminary Provisions and Definitions

Part 3. Indian Children


§ 170. Definitions; eligible membership in more than one tribe


(a) As used in this code, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "Indian," "Indian child," "Indian child's tribe," "Indian custodian," "Indian organization," "Indian tribe," "reservation," and "tribal court" shall be defined as provided in Section 1903 of the Indian Child Welfare Act (25 U.S.C. Sec. 1901 et seq.).


(b) When used in connection with an Indian child custody proceeding, the terms "extended family member" and "parent" shall be defined as provided in Section 1903 of the Indian Child Welfare Act.


(c) "Indian child custody proceeding" means a "child custody proceeding" within the meaning of Section 1903 of the Indian Child Welfare Act, including a voluntary or involuntary proceeding that may result in an Indian child's temporary or long-term foster care or guardianship placement if the parent or Indian custodian cannot have the child returned upon demand, termination of parental rights, or adoptive placement. An "Indian child custody proceeding" does not include a proceeding under this code commenced by the parent of an Indian child to determine the custodial rights of the child's parents, unless the proceeding involves a petition to declare an Indian child free from the custody or control of a parent or involves a grant of custody to a person or persons other than a parent, over the objection of a parent.


(d) If an Indian child is a member of more than one tribe or is eligible for membership in more than one tribe, the court shall make a determination, in writing together with the reasons for it, as to which tribe is the Indian child's tribe for purposes of the Indian child custody proceeding. The court shall make that determination as follows:


(1) If the Indian child is or becomes a member of only one tribe, that tribe shall be designated as the Indian child's tribe, even though the child is eligible for membership in another tribe.


(2) If an Indian child is or becomes a member of more than one tribe, or is not a member of any tribe but is eligible for membership in more than one tribe, the tribe with which the child has the more significant contacts shall be designated as the Indian child's tribe. In determining which tribe the child has the more significant contacts with, the court shall consider, among other things, the following factors:


(A) The length of residence on or near the reservation of each tribe and frequency of contact with each tribe.


(B) The child's participation in activities of each tribe.


(C) The child's fluency in the language of each tribe.


(D) Whether there has been a previous adjudication with respect to the child by a court of one of the tribes.


(E) Residence on or near one of the tribes' reservations by the child's parents, Indian custodian or extended family members.


(F) Tribal membership of custodial parent or Indian custodian.


(G) Interest asserted by each tribe in response to the notice specified in Section 180.


(H) The child's self identification.


(3) If an Indian child becomes a member of a tribe other than the one designated by the court as the Indian child's tribe under paragraph (2), actions taken based on the court's determination prior to the child's becoming a tribal member shall continue to be valid.


CREDIT(S)


(Added by Stats.2006, c. 838 (S.B.678), § 1.)

Home  |   Search  |   Disclaimer  |   Privacy Statement  |   Site Map